ארגון ה-FATF פרסם דו”ח בנושא איסור הלבנת הון ומימון טרור באמצעות סחר ביהלומים
The FATF and the Egmont Group of Financial Intelligence Units collaborated on a typologies research project to identify the money laundering and terrorist financing (ML/TF) vulnerabilities and risks of the “diamond pipeline”, which covers all sectors in the diamond trade: production, rough diamond sale, cutting and polishing, jewellery manufacturing and jewellery retailers.
Based on research conducted, analysis of case studies collected by the project team and after consultation with the private sector, the report concludes that the diamonds trade is subject to considerable vulnerabilities and risks. The closed and opaque nature of the diamonds markets and the high value of diamonds combined with a lack of expertise in this area on the part of the authorities have left this industry susceptible to abuse by criminals.
The case studies included in the report demonstrate the creative methods that criminals have used to exploit diamonds trade for the purpose of money laundering and terrorist financing. This report aims to help build awareness with the regulatory, enforcement and customs authorities as well as reporting entities about risks and vulnerabilities of the diamonds trade, and how to mitigate them.
Some of the risks and vulnerabilities of the diamonds trade, identified in this report are
Global nature of trade – The trade in diamonds is transnational and complex, thus convenient for ML/TF transactions that are, in most cases, of international and multi-jurisdictional nature.
Use of diamonds as currency - Diamonds are difficult to trace and can provide anonymity in transactions.
Trade Based Money Laundering (TBML) – The specific characteristics of diamonds as a commodity and the significant proportion of transactions related to international trade make the diamonds trade vulnerable to the different laundering techniques of TBML in general and over/under valuation in particular.
High amounts – The trade in diamonds can reach tens of millions to billions of US dollars. This has bearing on the potential to launder large amounts of money through the diamond trade and also on the level of risks of the diamonds trade.
Level of awareness – Law enforcement and AML / CFT authorities, including financial intelligence units (FIUs), have limited awareness of potential ML/TF schemes through the trade in diamonds.
קישור לדו"ח באתר FATF